COMPETITION BASICS

CHALLENGE OVERVIEW

The Safeguard with Autonomous Navigation Demonstration (SAND) Challenge is an opportunity for small businesses to compete in an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle competition. The challenge will address some of the safety critical risks associated with flying UAVs in the national airspace system: 1) flight outside of approved airspace; 2) unsafe proximity to people or property; and 3) critical system failure. The challenge will follow the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Part 107 Small Unmanned Aircraft Regulations provided in Appendix A.

NASA Langley’s patented Safeguard technology is designed to address the aforementioned safety critical risks and will fly onboard the competitor’s vehicle while navigating the course. Safeguard is NASA’s manned-aviation quality geofencing technology. Safeguard is a verified and validated independent system designed to supersede UAV guidance, navigation and control systems, and when necessary, physically prevent the vehicle from accessing restricted air space assuring the UAV complies with regulatory property protection and safety requirements for people/property on the ground, for certain areas of operation. The SAND challenge will demonstrate the successful surveillance of a post-natural disaster scenario with assured vehicle range containment. The SAND Challenge will be held the first week of August 2020.

The primary objectives of the SAND Challenge are:

  1. To demonstrate assured autonomous vehicle range containment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) without direct human intervention using NASA’s Safeguard Technology to stakeholders, the emerging UAV industry, and the public.
  2. To collect feedback from competitors and stakeholders to enable potential improvements and usages of Safeguard and enable further analysis that could inform new regulatory policies that support expanded use of commercial UAV systems.
  3. Inform regulatory stakeholders including federal, state, and local governments on the potential operational benefits of integrating NASA’s Safeguard Technology to UAVs to aid first responders in natural disasters events.
  4. To engage the emerging UAV operator market to the value proposition of NASA’s Safeguard Technology and its potential use cases for commercialization and licensing.

The small business competitors will develop their own autonomous logic implemented on their drones to provide surveillance and identification of key targets in a simulated post-natural disaster scene. A preliminary description of the SAND Competition Course will be provided on the SAND website. The Langley patented Safeguard technology will be flown as fully integrated independent flight termination systems (IFTS) mounted on the UAV. Integration of the Safeguard system requires a mechanical interface (see NASA provided Safeguard interface schematics) to engage and sever power to the vehicle if that vehicle was in danger of leaving the defined operational area. Competitors will be required to build their own interface box. Safeguard will also be used to support competition scoring.

OVERVIEW

CHALLENGE OVERVIEW


The Safeguard with Autonomous Navigation Demonstration (SAND) Challenge is an opportunity for small businesses to compete in an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle competition. The challenge will address some of the safety critical risks associated with flying UAVs in the national airspace system: 1) flight outside of approved airspace; 2) unsafe proximity to people or property; and 3) critical system failure. The challenge will follow the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Part 107 Small Unmanned Aircraft Regulations provided in Appendix A.

NASA Langley’s patented Safeguard technology is designed to address the aforementioned safety critical risks and will fly onboard the competitor’s vehicle while navigating the course. Safeguard is NASA’s manned-aviation quality geofencing technology. Safeguard is a verified and validated independent system designed to supersede UAV guidance, navigation and control systems, and when necessary, physically prevent the vehicle from accessing restricted air space assuring the UAV complies with regulatory property protection and safety requirements for people/property on the ground, for certain areas of operation. The SAND challenge will demonstrate the successful surveillance of a post-natural disaster scenario with assured vehicle range containment. The SAND Challenge will be held the first week of August 2020.

The primary objectives of the SAND Challenge are:

  1. To demonstrate assured autonomous vehicle range containment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) without direct human intervention using NASA’s Safeguard Technology to stakeholders, the emerging UAV industry, and the public.
  2. To collect feedback from competitors and stakeholders to enable potential improvements and usages of Safeguard and enable further analysis that could inform new regulatory policies that support expanded use of commercial UAV systems.
  3. Inform regulatory stakeholders including federal, state, and local governments on the potential operational benefits of integrating NASA’s Safeguard Technology to UAVs to aid first responders in natural disasters events.
  4. To engage the emerging UAV operator market to the value proposition of NASA’s Safeguard Technology and its potential use cases for commercialization and licensing.

The small business competitors will develop their own autonomous logic implemented on their vehicles to provide surveillance and identification of key targets in a simulated post-natural disaster scene. A preliminary description of the SAND Competition Course will be provided on the SAND website. The Langley patented Safeguard technology will be flown as fully integrated independent flight termination systems (IFTS) mounted on the UAV. The Safeguard system will engage and sever power to the vehicle if that vehicle was in danger of leaving the defined operational area. Safeguard is also capable of providing warning messages and range to boundary data if integrated appropriately to the UAVs autopilot. Safeguard will also be used to support competition scoring.


CHALLENGE CONTEXT


NASA conducts research based on a strategic plan that includes expanded research into Advanced Air Mobility (AAM) including Unmanned Aerials Systems (UAS) and Urban Air Mobility (UAM) technologies. NASA’s vision for UAM is a safe, efficient and accessible system for air passenger and cargo transportation within an urban area, inclusive of small package delivery and other urban UAS services, which supports a mix of onboard/ground-piloted and increasingly autonomous operations. NASA is uniquely positioned to work with industry and academia to work collaboratively on the technical challenges of advanced air mobility, building upon of decades of successful research to improve air traffic management. More recently, NASA has focused on efforts to safely integrate UAS, into the national airspace system (NAS). NASA currently has effective partnerships with industry, academia, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to identify and seek solutions to the challenges unique to enabling advanced air mobility operations in the NAS. NASA’s role in this area can be characterized by test derived data and results used to inform the FAA and industry regarding the safety, performance, and operations of these unique revolutionary aircraft.


SAFEGUARD TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION AND CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS


Competitors will be given the boundary conditions of the geo-spatial area in which the competition will be held in Hampton, Virginia. The Safeguard technology can transmit to the vehicle’s flight control system an array of data including range/bearing to the closest point of the operational boundary and a discrete signal upon breaching the warning area. If the vehicle is in danger of leaving the operational area, the IFTS will terminate power to the vehicle, resulting in a forced landing. NASA will evaluate the performance of the vehicles to autonomously perform their surveillance service function of identifying the post-natural disaster objects in an efficient manner. While the UAV will be operated within visual line of sight for the competition, the autonomous systems, including Safeguard, will provide functionality compatible with beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) operations.

All Safeguard data generated during the SAND Challenge shall be the property of NASA and may be publicly released in NASA’s sole discretion. Subject to NASA’s data release processes and approvals, NASA will use reasonable efforts to provide to Participant, upon request, the GPS-location data, boundary violation data, and velocity flight path data tracked by Safeguard for Participant’s vehicle.

VEHICLE ELIGIBILITY & OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

VEHICLE ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS


The following are the physical requirements and operational constraints that must be provided in the vehicle documentation in order to qualify as a competitor in the SAND Challenge:

  • Vehicle must be compliant with the FAA's Part 107 regulations.
  • Vehicle must be capable of operating within the defined competition area of 50 x 50 meters.
  • Vehicle cost inclusive of sensors should not exceed $10,000.
  • General aircraft restrictions (size, weight, and power source):
    • Max Weight: up to 55 lbs.
      • Including the weight of Safeguard and associated systems (approximately 1.5 lbs)
    • Vehicle will be weighed at check-in on the day of the competition
  • No exotic power sources such as hydrogen, helium, etc.
    • Electric power is preferred; however, other methods can be petitioned for exemption through the application process.
  • Pixhawk is the preferred and recommended autopilot hardware; however, other autopilot hardware can be petitioned for exemption through the application process.
  • In the event of loss of all command and control links greater than one second, the vehicle must execute a return to base (RTB)/return to launch (RTL) maneuver.
  • All frequency communication must comply with FCC rules and regulations. Usable frequencies include:
    • 902 MHZ to 928 MHz
    • 862 MHz to 872 MHz
    • 5.8 GHz Spectrum
    • 2.4 GHz Spectrum
  • Ground Control Station:
    • It is highly recommended to use currently available ground control stations, such as Mission Planner or QGround Control.
    • Ground control stations must display in real-time: vehicle location, altitude, heading, speed, data telemetry signal strength and battery status.
  • All vehicles must have at least 50 successful flights prior to being authorized to fly as part of the SAND competition.
  • All vehicles shall have documented results that record vehicle flights and maintenance activities.
  • Vehicles are required to maintain 30% battery reserves at vehicle touchdown to be verified through battery recharge data.
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    VEHICLE OPERATIONAL RESTRICTIONS


    • Maximum Operational Altitude: 40m above ground level
    • Recommended Maximum Operational Speed: 5 m/s
    • Vehicle should be capable of at least 15 minutes of continuous flight time.
    • Vehicle may not employ parachutes for landing.
    • Vehicles must stay within range.
    • Safeguard shall be installed as an independent flight termination system and be capable of ensuring range containment without reliance on the vehicle’s autopilot.

     


    VEHICLE DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS FOR APPLICATION


    The following documentation must be provided as part of the Participant Application:

    • Proof of compliance to FAA Part 107
    • Proof of ownership/purchase by the small business of the vehicle to be flown in the competition
    • Proof of FAA registration of the vehicle
    • Vehicle manufacturer, model number, and specifications, if applicable
    • Vehicle size, weight, estimated/validated endurance
    • Provide description of team roles and responsibilities, communication paths, flight limitations, along with usage of crew resource management aspects of the operation
    • Identification of frequencies used (command and control, datalink, etc.)
    • Vehicle schematic at the component level to include make/model of telemetry and R/C links as well as other components of the system (i.e. autopilot)
    • Define Ground Control Station system to be used (eg Mission Planner) including version number or provide description of system to be used including user interface, how vehicle health data will be provided along with relevant warnings (eg battery level, link strength, GPS status, IMU/Gyro status)
    • Perform and pass standard manufacturer’s range test procedures for at least one command and control link (usually the safety pilot’s R/C transmitter)
    • Provide a three-minute video of intended vehicle operations that would be configured for the SAND competition performing similar maneuvers as envisioned for the competition (auto takeoff, auto waypoint following in a 50mx50m area, ground control station triggered RTL, R/C triggered RTL, geofence-triggered RTL, manual control override of auto mode with manual landing, and R/C link loss - preflight only required)
    • Define current approach to UAS range containment
    • All users must detail for each vehicle and ground station:
      • Radio manufacturer(s) & model number(s)
      • Antenna type and estimated gain
      • Frequencies used and FCC compliance for transmissions

    Should the applicant be selected to participate in the competition, a NASA team will arrange for a site visit to the competitor’s location to validate Safeguard technology integration with the applicant’s vehicle, as well as answer any questions regarding Safeguard integration and operation.


    PRE-FLIGHT SAFETY INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPETITION OPERATIONS


    Prior to authorization to operate vehicles in the competition area, competition teams will need to pass a pre-competition safety inspection. Additional first-flight of the day and pre-flight checklists are required for subsequent operations. Each team’s vehicle must pass the following in order to qualify on the date of the SAND competition:

    • Verify vehicle can demonstrate approved failsafe measures prior to first flight (ie return to launch for loss of R/C link)
    • Competition team has attended the mandatory safety briefing prior to first flight
    • Demonstrate the ability of the competition team to use effective checklists and team resource management to safely operate the competition vehicle
    • Verify acquisition and transmission of .tlog or equivalent data for subsequent collection and archival
    • Usage of appropriate personnel protection equipment (eq safety glasses)
    • Complete of visual inspection of vehicle, including Safeguard system, GPS antennas, and flight termination system
    • Define commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) autopilot to be used (eg Pixhawk) along with firmware currently installed, or provide separate documentation describing the autopilot hardware, software, and prior operational experience
    • Review the logbook of the aircraft for operational and maintenance documentation

     

    PARTICIPANT ELIGIBILITY

    PARTICIPANT ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS


    The SAND Challenge welcomes applications from small business teams that are duly licensed and incorporated in the United States and are in good standing. The following restrictions apply.

    In order for a company to qualify to participate in the SAND Challenge, the following requirements must be satisfied:

    • Provide documentation denoting the participant is a Small Business per the Small Business Administration’s (SBA) 13 CFR 121.201. See Table of Small Business Size Standards North American Industry Classification System Code in the Resource tab below.
    • Provide a copy of the Business’ certificate of incorporation documenting the small business is incorporated and licensed to do business in one of the 50 states of the United States
    • A corporate officer with authority certifies the Participant Business will maintain, throughout the term of the SAND Challenge, insurance covering claims for bodily injury, personal injury, death, property damage, or other loss or damages arising from any activities conducted at the SAND Challenge at such limits and upon such terms as are acceptable to NASA in its reasonable discretion, and shall provide NASA acceptable evidence of such insurance.
    • A corporate officer with authority executes a liability waiver and indemnification agreement with NASA.
    • A corporate officer with authority executes an intellectual property agreement and media release agreement with NASA.
    • The Participant must submit a five-page white paper that describes the business implementation plan for potential uses of NASA’s Safeguard Technology. Specifically:
      • Provide a brief description of the nature and type of your business and your technical capabilities
      • Provide an overview of your company’s and team members’ experience with UAVs
      • Why do you want to participate?
      • Provide an overview of your company’s and team members’ experience with UAVs.
      • What are the potential use cases of Safeguard that meet your business strategy?
        • Product: Describe the product/services that will use the technology.
        • Market: Describe the markets and applications that will use the products/services described above.
        • Market Size: Estimate the expected annual revenue to be generated from the products/services described above.
    • The Participant must identify a minimum of two employees, a Safety/Remote Pilot and a Team Captain, with a maximum of four employees to compete on the days of the SAND Competition. These team members must provide proof of being an employee of the small business and U.S. citizenship (participants may be Lawful Permanent Residents) as part of the application process. One of the team members must be certified as a Remote Pilot (e.g. Safety Pilot) and one must be identified as the Captain of the team. The Captain has an additional responsibility of being an observer providing visual cues to the Remote Pilot.
      • Proof of U.S. Person: provide copy of birth certificate or U.S. Passport; or proof of Lawful Permanent Residency (copy of green card)
      • Proof of Employment: Small Business Company Badge or appropriate documentation
    • The designated Safety Pilot must provide the following documents that demonstrate FAA Part 107 compliance as part of the application:
      • A copy of their Remote Pilot Airman Certificate with a small UAS rating
      • Pilots must have at least three takeoffs and landings in the prior 90 days to qualify for the SAND operations.
      • The pilot must be able to intervene to manually take control of the vehicle in stabilize mode (for Pixhawk autopilots) or an equivalent minimally-augmented flight mode.
    • The Captain of the team shall be responsible for the actions of the team members and for the team’s compliance with the competition rules, including competition and prize eligibility rules. The Captain shall be responsible for all deliverable submissions and communications between team and competition committee as part of the SAND Challenge event.

    NOTE that a maximum of four members are allowed in the competition area during the SAND flight operations. However, there is no limit on total team size. Please identify roles and responsibilities of each member of the team as part of the application process.

    PARTICIPANT & VEHICLE SELECTION

    PARTICIPANT SELECTION AND CLEARANCE TO OPERATE PROCESS


    On the SAND2020 Website, the required deliverables and deadlines are specified in the Requirements and Forms Page. The process for selection is a two-step process. The first is what is required to qualify as a participant for the SAND2020 Challenge and the second is what is required of the competition vehicle to be eligible and qualified to compete. An overview of the selection process for participant and vehicles as well as competition vehicle selection to compete is as follows:

    • Participant Application Submitted
      • Upon receipt of all documents and forms per the SAND 2020 Requirements and Forms Page including an example video of the proposed competition vehicle operations, a SAND 2020 Selection Panel will be convened to evaluate the qualifications, quality and relevance to the SAND Challenge Competition.
      • Evaluation Process will take two weeks.
        • The Selection Committee may reach out to applicants to ask clarifying questions.
        • A slate of qualified participants with competition vehicles that meet the FAA Part 107 qualifications and SAND2020 Challenge requirements will be determined.
    • Participant Selection Notification
      • All applicants will receive a notification whether they qualify and have been selected to compete at the SAND challenge or not.
      • Non-selected applicants can request a debrief as to why they were not selected to compete at the SAND2020 Challenge.
    • Video Submission
      • Competitors must demonstrate successful autonomous flight capability in order to be selected to compete at the SAND2020 Challenge as part of the Participant Application.
      • Refer to Vehicle Documentation Requirements for Application section in the Competition Basics document for video content requirements.
      • Competition Video Evaluation:
        • The provided video will be evaluated for completeness of vehicle performance requirements listed above.
    • Assessment of Competitors to be Selected for the SAND Competition
      • Competitors will be ranked and selected based on their abilities to address requirements listed in the SAND Competition Basics document.
      • Up to a total of 10 competitors will be selected for the SAND competition.
    • Site Visit to the Competitor’s Location
      • A NASA team will arrange to visit the Competitor’s location to discuss integration of the Safeguard technology with the competition vehicle.
      • The NASA team will provide an assessment of the competition team’s progress towards meeting requirements in the Competition Basics document. The NASA team will provide feedback to the competition team in support of successful completion of the Operational Readiness Review planned to be performed 2 weeks prior to the competition.
    • Virtual Final Check Out or Operational Readiness Review (2 Weeks Prior to Competition)
      • Clear to fly / compete will be issued.
      • Review of all competitors submitted material, videos, and responses for action from NASA site visits will be used to satisfy operational safety requirements for the SAND competition.

    SAFEGUARD TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION
    OBJECTIVES & SCORING

    PRELIMINARY SAND COMPETITION OBJECTIVES & SCORING GUIDELINES


    The Competition will evaluate vehicle performance as encountered in situations associated with the aftermath of natural and man-made disasters.

    Competitors will accumulate points in two main areas:

    • Qualitative
      • Factors to include: quality of vehicle workmanship including electrical and mechanical aspects, thoroughness, conciseness, and accuracy of vehicle documentation, and proposed white paper use cases, and quality of competition teams operations.
    • Quantitative vehicle performance
      • Navigation/precision flight path
      • Speed of completion of area search pattern
      • Detecting and accurately geolocating
        • Human mannequins that replicate incapacitated humans
        • UV emissions that replicate a downed power line
        • Small swimming pools with water to replicate flooded surfaces


    NARRATIVE/SCENARIO


    The scenario for SAND is that of a post natural disaster response effort. Within this scenario, it is assumed that the city of Hampton, VA was hit by a large and devastating hurricane. The effect of the hurricane was to flood much of the area, knock down trees, damage houses/building, disrupt power lines and cause some injuries to residents. As part of the recovery effort, crews are working to locate incapacitated people, assess the damage to neighborhoods, look for downed power lines, and determine the extent of the remaining flooding. To meet these objectives, both manned and unmanned aircraft are being leveraged to expedite the response. The Concept of Operations employed assumes that UAS will remain within a specific volume of airspace to ensure the safety of manned aircraft operating in the vicinity as well as the safety of first responders that are working in adjacent zones. UAS are assigned to specific areas to perform search and surveillance efforts. Safeguard provides range containment for vehicles independent of the UAS operator’s ability to monitor the vehicle, either by direct line of sight or through telemetered data. Its use for SAND is similar to beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) applications.


    GENERAL APPROACH


    Competitors will earn points for the SAND competition through 2 primary assessment areas: qualitative and quantitative performance. Qualitative points will be awarded from documentation provided to support the application process, flight operations and safety, the Safeguard business case, and the workmanship of the vehicle. Quantitative points will be earned through a combination of performance of a nominal search pattern (using a generic virtual sensor), identification, geolocation, and surveillance of targets of interest, integration of Safeguard data into the autopilot, and finally speed to complete the competition course.


    QUALITATIVE MEASURES


    Application Documentation

    From the Competition Basics document Vehicle Documentation Requirements for Application section, the competitors will be awarded points regarding the completeness and accuracy of the provided documentation.

    Flight Operations and Safety

    In order to be authorized to operate UAS as part of the SAND competition competitors will need to successfully pass the Operational Readiness Review. This review performs an assessment of the competition teams capability towards meeting the requirements listed in the Competition Basics document and ensuring safe operations.

    Safeguard Business Case

    The Safeguard business will be evaluated upon the level of Safeguard integration, new and unique applications, impact towards integration of UAS into the National Air Space (NAS), and potential improvements that could be accumulated for the Safeguard system.


    QUANTITATIVE MEASURES


    The general approach to the quantitative scoring is to provide a series of tasks that require different optimum altitudes and/or vehicle speeds. The basic search task is designed to influence the selection of higher altitudes and potentially higher speeds than detection and geolocation. Extended surveillance of targets of interest would benefit from lower and potentially slower speeds. Optimization of points will require competitors to perform some analysis, effectively model their vehicle and potentially perform simulation testing in addition to performing developmental and practice flights. Overall the scoring system is designed to be able provide significant differentiation of competitors who have the expertise and put in the time and effort to prepare and execute at the SAND competition. NASA will provide the scoring prototype code to the competitors that wish to perform score calculations for practice runs.

    Basic Search of Competition Area

    The competition field will be discretized into a series of ~5x5m cells for a total competition field of 50mx50m, which results in nominally 250 individual cells. Each cell will have a maximum nominal value that will be provided before the competition. The corner 10x10m cells will have zero values and competitors will lose points if they overfly them. Competitors will earn scores for performing a search of the cells using an assumed virtual sensor with TBF properties. Safeguard will be used as the vehicle tracking device for the official score that will be post-processed after flight. For each instant of Safeguard data (Safeguard update rate is 5Hz), competitors will earn points that are a function of the vehicle’s GPS position and altitude with respect to the cell’s centroid up to the maximum value for each cell. In this manner fully maxing out a cell would require multiple seconds on a given pass and/or multiple passes. Adjustment of the virtual sensor FOV will be performed to require approximately 7 minutes of flight over the competition area. The maximum allowable competition flight time will be nominally 10 minutes.

    Virtual Sensor

    The virtual sensor will be defined through a series of parameters such as field of view (FOV) and sensitivity. The final FOV will be provided before the competition and a nominal value of 10 degrees should be used at this time (20 degrees total). The sensitivity can be associated with a level of pixels per degree type of metric. For the SAND competition however, sensor resolution will be considered to provide uniform results from the minimum scanning altitude up to the highest nominal search altitude. Above the nominal search altitude sensor resolution/performance will linearly decrease to zero at the maximum search altitude. At this time the minimum altitude is established at 3m above ground level (AGL). Below 3m the competitors will not earn any points. The highest nominal search altitude is 30m and maximum search altitude is set nominally to 40m.

    Targets of Interest

    Developing, advancing, and demonstrating the efficacy of sUAS to aid in disaster response efforts is included as a major objective of the SAND competition. To meet this objective several simulated targets of interest will be placed on to the playing field. The competitor’s aircraft will accumulate additional points if the simulated targets of interest can be detected, identified, geolocated, and surveilled. The locations of the targets will not be known to the competitors before vehicle launch and efforts will be taken to keep the targets of interest out of direct line of sight of the competitors. Cells in which the targets of interest are located will be worth much more than nominal max value provided to the competitors. The max value of the cells with the targets of interest will be worth an order of magnitude (TBD) more than nominal max value. If a competitor’s vehicle detects and identifies a target of interest, the objective would be to hover directly over the cell to accumulate the maximum points for that cell. It is up to the competitors to decide how much time to dedicate to the surveillance vs searching the rest of the field.

    Mannequins (Incapacitated Human Detection System)

    Mannequins with nominal clothing will be placed on the field in a lying position to simulate a person who is incapacitated and lying on the ground. This will enable an evaluation of a competitors aircraft to detect and identify an incapacitated person who needs medical attention.

    Water-Filled Pool (Water/Flooded Street Detection System)

    Children’s pools will be used to test the capability of competitor’s aircraft to determine if an area is under water. Multiple pools will be used, however, only a fraction of them will be full with water. Competitors will not be allowed to directly view the pools ahead of time to determine the water state before takeoff.

    UV Emitter (Downed/Still Live Power Line)

    A UV emitter will be used (to be specified) to simulate a potential downed power line that may still be sparking. The UV emitter will be placed on a tripod and positioned in the competition field out of direct competitor line of sight.


    Post Flight Reporting of Target of Interest Locations

    Competitors will be able to provide the locations of the targets of interest after the vehicle has landed. However, the locations of the targets need to be reported nominally within 5 minutes of landing. A 20% reduction in score will also be assessed for post-flight reporting compared to in-flight surveillance.

    All scoring metrics will be finalized by NASA by May 31, 2020.

    RESOURCES